Aircraft turbocharging systems in particular work to maintain the desired manifold pressure at a given throttle setting, regardless of changing conditions or ambient air pressure. This is possible with the help of a turbocharging system that consists of a turbocharger, bypass valve, and one or more controllers. Some also feature a pressure relief valve capable of preventing total engine failure and other serious damage. Their main purpose is to increase an engine’s volumetric efficiency by increasing the intake air density. Those interested in learning more about turbocharging systems and their functions are encouraged to read this article.
Turbochargers work by diverting engine exhaust gas through a turbine, and the pressure of the gas, along with the heat energy extracted from it, makes the turbine wheel rotate the compressor wheel. As this occurs, ambient air is drawn into the compressor housing where it is compressed before being directed to the intake manifold ducts. This provides a corresponding increase in fuel quantity that can be used to maintain a stable air-to-fuel ratio that allows for proper combustion at any altitude.
The exhaust bypass valve, also called the wastegate, is the part of a turbocharging system that regulates the flow of exhaust gas to the turbocharger by redirecting it when necessary. The speed of the turbine wheel and the turbocharger are regulated by the flow of exhaust gas, making these valves essential. Wastegates come in two types, the first of which is regulated using a poppet valve, while the second type is called a butterfly valve. Both valve types tend to be open, allowing most exhaust gasses to exit the system, and they will actuate when needed, rerouting exhaust gas into the turbocharger so it can drive the turbine. This kinetic energy sourced from the engine’s exhaust gasses spins the centrifugal compressor. Furthermore, valves are often regulated by a controller and can be adjusted to suit every application.
The aircraft controller is built to maintain constant pressure by continuously adjusting the wastegate. As such, when the throttle is activated, the controller will actuate the wastegate, increasing manifold pressure. The controller is able to sense this increase and will open the internal poppet, decreasing the upstream oil pressure and causing the wastegate to move back into the open position. With less exhaust gas being routed to the turbocharger, deck and manifold pressures can stabilize to more normal levels.
The pressure relief valve is connected to the ducting between the compressor discharge and the engine throttle manifold, or to a flange on the turbocharger compressor housing. This valve remains closed until deck pressure exceeds its settings, which is when the valve head opens and allows pressure to exist within acceptable limits.
Proper maintenance of a turbocharger will give it a lengthy service life, and since they withstand extreme operating conditions, the turbine and compression wheel must be regularly inspected for damage. Those searching for high-quality aircraft turbocharging parts and more will be pleased to discover Aviation Domain 360, where we are committed to our customers. Our expansive inventory features millions of new, used, obsolete, and hard-to-find products that have been sourced from trusted global manufacturers featured on our Approved Vendors List (AVL). Moreover, as a part of our strict NO CHINA SOURCING policy, we ship all parts alongside their applicable qualifying certifications and manufacturing trace documentation to guarantee their caliber. Be sure to call or email us at any time with questions or if you are ready to commence the parts purchasing process with a reliable partner; our representatives will be more than happy to assist you however we can!
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